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PLANE GEOMETRY 

AND 

FANCY FIGURES 



THE ART AND TECHNIQUE OF PAPER FOLDING 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

In assembling material for the exhibition, the Museum has received 
most helpful suggestions and information from the following, to 
whom are given very grateful thanks: 

Professor Mary F. Blade 
Miss Louise Crane 
Raymond B. Dowden 
Miss Victoria Kent 
Gershon Legman 
Mrs. Harry C. Oppenheimer 
Francis William Paar 
Miss Maria de Unamuno 



Copyright 1959 by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



INTRODUCTION 



A, 



LT some unknown point in the nearly two-thousand-year history of paper, 
man discovered that among its almost unimaginable variety of uses, paper 
could be folded. With this discovery, paper became something more than a 
merely useful commodity, a means of recording the literary and artistic ideas 
and historical acts of man, it became itself a vehicle for artistic expression. 
Out of paper could be created three-dimensional images or images that gave 
an illusion of three-dimensional form, depending as much on the technical 
skill and aesthetic sense of the artist as on the particular kind of paper used 
and its material characteristics. 

As with so many of the western world's civilized refinements, paper and 
its use has come to us from the Orient, for while papyrus served the ancient 
Egyptians, Greeks and Romans as a form of paper for both writing and illus- 
tration, paper as we regard it today was the invention of the Chinese during 
the Eastern Han dynasty (25-220 A.D.). In the middle of the 8th century, 
a Chinese attack on the Arabs in Samarkand resulted in the initial introduc- 
tion of paper and the knowledge of its manufacture into the Arab world. In 
Europe, the manufacture of paper was first established by the Moors in Spain 
during the 12th century. 

In spite of its early adoption in Europe and the quick adaptation of its 
manufacture to European natural substances, paper itself has never assumed 
in the Occident quite the same degree of symbolic meaning nor have objects 
made of paper been used in the same ceremonial way as in the Orient. Among 
the Chinese, paper houses, paper servants, paper chests filled with paper 
money are all elaborately constructed and burned in funeral rites so they may 
assume reality in the hereafter and assist the deceased to live in the manner 
of his life on earth, and paper mock money enclosed in red paper envelopes 
is burned at weddings to assure future happiness. 1 

In Japan, paper carps are hoisted in the air and carried about on 'Boys' 
Day,' a festival held on the fifth day of the fifth month of the year, and care- 
fully folded paper ornaments are attached to gifts that are ceremonially ex- 
changed on various occasions such as weddings, birthdays, anniversaries and 
New Year's Day. The Japanese have an intrinsic regard for paper that has 
almost no parallel in the western world, a regard apparent in the quantity of 
laboriously hand-manufactured papers of rare quality that are produced in 
Japan. As with paper, paper folding has an older traceable history in the 



Far East than in the western world, and it may be assumed that like paper 
itself an initial introduction into Europe of the art of paper folding came 
from the Orient, perhaps by way of the same Arab invaders who first estab- 
lished paper manufacture on European soil. 

In the middle ages, both Oriental and European papers, the latter's manu- 
facture based on that of the former, were distinguished by a firm, stout 
substance; and in the laws of King Alphonso X of Spain (1252-1284) paper 
is referred to as cloth parchment. 2 Cloth folding is known to have existed 
since the time of the ancient Egyptians, 3 and while stiffly folded cloth may 
have been a part of the elaborate hierarchical costume of the early medieval 
Byzantine court, 4 it apparently was not popularly used in western Europe 
until the late middle ages. Following the general elaboration of European 
dress, which in itself shows strong influences of the Byzantine East, folded 
cloth appears as part of regular dress and was an especially favored device for 
ladies' headdresses in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, 5 a device still 
used for the headdresses of some nurses and for certain orders of nuns, such 
as the impressive starched white linen caps worn by the Sisters of Charity of 
St. Vincent de Paul. 6 

The creation of three-dimensional objects in folded cloth, distinct from 
folds as part of clothing, became an established part of table settings for 
banquets in the 16th and 17th centuries. The setting for a banquet given by 
the late 16th century Pope, Gregory XIII, "in honor of twenty cardinals and 
three ambassadors" comprised "a table . . . decorated with wonderfully folded 
napkins. Also the centerpiece — a castle — was made of napkins." 7 

Whether the creation of animals, birds and flowers from starched cloth led 
naturally to the creation of the same popular subjects in the sister medium 
of paper, at a time when cloth and certain types of paper still had like physical 
characteristics, or whether in the European development the two arts were 
independent of each other, with paper folding more directly descendant from 
an earlier practice of the art in the Orient, is a yet unsolved question. 

In the Codex Atlanticus, that monument to the scientific mind of Leonardo 
da Vinci, are found a number of geometric exercises that clearly make use of 
folding as simple visual illustration, with one in particular a near duplicate 
to the typical folded paper aeroplane of today. 8 In some instances, the text 
contains the word "falcata," meaning 'bent' or 'folded,' and while there is 
no mention of material of any kind, it is not difficult to imagine Leonardo 
would have found paper a more tractable medium than cloth. Modern geo- 
metry resorts to paper folding especially in dealing with the three-dimensional 
problems in the XI Book of Euclid to demonstrate the geometric construc- 
tion of regular polygons and circles, 9 and its use in experimenting with engi- 
neering principles and with architectural forms and spatial dispositions, the 



relationships between solids and voids, may be seen by leafing through any 
number of today's many magazines devoted to engineering and architecture. 10 

For architects and designers trained in the Bauhaus tradition, paper folding 
is fundamental. Moholy-Nagy, one of the teachers at the famous school in 
Dessau, wrote: "Another type of exercise ... is the manipulation of flat sheets 
(of paper) into three-dimensional structures. This provides the basic method- 
ology for approaching any flat sheet or slab, such as cardboard, plywood, 
metal, wire mesh, and plastic, . . . manipulations (introductory to) not only 
inventiveness but also to such basic engineering principles as strength of 
materials, stress and strain, tension and compression." u 

While the Bauhaus and its influence are usually associated with architec- 
ture and the fine arts, its effect on commercial design has been enormous. 
As a direct or indirect result of Bauhaus ideas, designers of packaging for 
commercial products, of various types of advertising layouts, of countless 
objects for the home such as lampshades and even ashtrays, are more and 
more realizing the many uses to which folded paper can be put, not merely 
as a method in preliminary design experiments but as finished, highly useful 
and decorative objects in themselves. 

As an art unrelated to geometry, engineering or architectural design 
principles, paper folding exists in its most developed form in Japan. Called 
'origami' in Japanese, paper folding is at once an art that apparently shares 
equal rank with the more familiar arts of painting and sculpture (and conse- 
quently an art whose practitioners reach their highest expression in the 
unique individualism of each created object) and is an art complexly linked 
with the stylized traditions of the Japanese. Among the popular subjects of 
the origami artist are such traditional figures as the crane and tortoise, both 
symbols of good fortune and longevity of life, the carp, symbolic of persistency 
and aspiration, and the frog, an emblem of love and fertility. In addition 
to such symbolic figures, the origami artist creates all sorts of three-dimen- 
sional animals, birds and fish, the best of which are works of art of extraordi- 
nary quality, with the paper itself, selected with infinite care, becoming an 
inherently expressive part of the particular object's form. 

Japanese are careful to distinguish between paper folding, paper cutting 
and paper constructions held together with a glue, an approach that indicates 
that the finished object is judged as much by the way in which it is made as 
by its completed effect. It is a form of discipline that suggests an ultimate 
connection with or derivation from Zen, that aspect of Buddhism first intro- 
duced into Japan towards the end of the 12 th century. In succeeding cen- 
turies, the mystical character of Zen had a pronounced effect on Japanese 
religious life and was a dominant influence on the Japanese samurai, or 
warrior class. The teaching of Zen stressed the identification of the soul with 



the universe, and aimed at establishing an intimate relationship between 
man and the life rhythm of nature. 12 Zen was, and is, a way of life, and its 
emphasis on discipline of the self applied as much to the artist as to the war- 
rior, his aesthetic vision as well as the physical process of creativity. 

Apart from origami as an art in the sense of the individually unique, folded 
paper has a role in the ceremonial etiquette of Japanese life, as used for the 
paper decorations attached to gifts, which, however, include many of the 
traditional figures of origami such as the crane and tortoise. Unlike origami, 
these decorations are designed purely as traditional emblems, the proper 
decoration on the proper gift to be given on the proper occasion. Whether 
the paper is folded into a recognizable form or an abstract shape, the folded 
object is termed 'noshi,' and the noshi is always attached to the gift with a 
bound paper string culminating in a sometimes elaborately tied knot called 
'mizuhiki.' 13 Frequently, a wisp of seaweed is enclosed in the fold symboliz- 
ing the sea separating Japan and the mainland from which the Mongolian 
Japanese originally came. A further connection with the sea exists in the 
derivation of the noshi itself. In medieval Japan of the 12th century it was 
customary for warriors going into or returning from battle to eat, ceremo- 
nially, the dried meat of abalone, and the meat was regarded as ritualistically 
suitable for exchange as a gift. In time, the meat of abalone became sym- 
bolized by the paper noshi and, in fact, one of the meanings of the word noshi 
is 'dried sea-ear' or the meat of the sea creature known as abalone. 

Books with diagrams and instructions for folding the traditional paper 
decorations were published as early as the first quarter of the 18th century, 
a fact indicating a long established tradition. 14 Characteristic of Japanese 
forms of etiquette is adherence to ceremony prescribed by tradition. In the 
gth century, during the 'Age of Peace and Ease,' 1B etiquette was already at the 
heart of Japanese civilization, and in the 14th century under the influence of 
Zen the rules of etiquette were systematized by the ruler, Yoshimitsu. 16 The 
tea ceremony was among the principal rites formalized, and it may be imag- 
ined that included also in the systematization were the proper usages to be 
followed in the exchange of gifts, the correct emblems for appended paper 
folds, and proper methods for their folding. Elusive though they are, these 
traces of paper folding point to a very long history in Japan, especially in 
respect to the 'gift' folds, and it is reasonable to guess that origami as an art 
may have an equally long history. 

No such history, or widespread popularity for the art, is evident among 
Europeans and, even today, paper folding in the western world enjoys the 
general status of a craft and hobby rather than a fine art, with creative amuse- 
ment and diversion rather than artistic expression the usually accepted 
criteria. In particular instances, however, original paper folds have been 





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created in the western world that in quality rank with the best of the 
Japanese folds. 

As diversion, paper folding is the province of some of the Occident's most 
creative minds. Shelley, and the author of Alice in Wonderland, Lewis 
Carroll, were eminent paper folders. Carroll mentions entertaining the royal 
children of the Duchess of Albany in his country home where he amused 
them by folding a fishing boat and, later, initiating "the little Duke of 
Albany ... in the art of making paper pistols." 17 

The late Spanish philosopher, Miguel de Unamuno, is perhaps the best 
known among European and American folders, and the originality of his 
folds has been an inspirational guide to folders especially among the Spanish 
in Europe and South America. Like Lewis Carroll, Unamuno delighted in 
children, a delight typified in an account recorded by his friend, Eduardo 
Ortega y Gasset. Alone with Unamuno one day in the garden of his exile 
home in Hendaye was a little boy, Fernandito, who was enchanted with the 
animals and birds the famed philosopher had created from paper. "Fernan- 
dito contemplated . . . that zoological park when, suddenly, he turned to 
Don Miguel and said 'Don Miguel, do the little paper birds speak?' The 
master . . . was moved by the child's question. And the flash of inspiration 
illuminated that small world of paper." 18 So moved was Unamuno that he 
immediately went into the house and composed the lyrical poem that both 
opens and closes with the phrase 

"Speak! the child urges. 

And it speaks!" 

Paper folding is an art on many levels: the compelling, moving experi- 
ence it was for the philosopher, Unamuno; a pastime to fill, creatively, an 
idle hour; a sensitive art with overtones of the mystical experience funda- 
mental to the practice of Zen; an art that probably served to illustrate 
Leonardo da Vinci's scientific essays; and an art immensely useful today in 
fields where the finished product relies on the precise understanding of the 
principles of physics and geometry. 

The prosaically useful object, as well as the unique, rarefied work of art, 
satisfies our aesthetic senses when it is the result of creative forethought and 
imaginatively planned design. To view these several aspects of the art and 
technique of paper folding, as they are presented in exhibition, is to compre- 
hend the artistic quality realizable in the simple act of folding a piece of 
paper. 

Edward Kallop 



NOTES 



1 Hunter, Dard. Chinese Ceremonial Paper. 
Mountain House Press, Chillicothe, Ohio, 1937. 

2 The Encyclopaedia Britannica. Fourteenth 
Edition, vol. 17, p. 229. 

3 The skirts and sleeves of ancient Egyptian 
dress frequently had pleated folds as may be 
seen in any number of statues from the Middle 
Kingdom period, and an actual example, a 
pleated shirt from a Sixth Dynasty tomb at 
Naga-ed-Der, is illustrated in Riefstahl, Eliza- 
beth. Patterned Textiles in Pharaonic Egypt, 
Brooklyn Museum, 1944, fig. 7. 

4 Some idea of Byzantine imperial court dress 
is reflected in mosaics in Ravenna, and else- 
where, as well as described in such works as 
Ebersolt, J. Le grand palais de Constantinople 
et le livre des ceremonies, Paris, 1910. 

5 Illustrated very well in Holbein's paintings 
of contemporary ladies wearing stiffly folded 
headdresses. A variety of these are depicted in 
Wilcox, R. T. The Mode in Hats and Head- 
dresses, New York, 1945, p. 97 fol. 

8 The society of St. Vincent de Paul was 
founded in France in the 17th century, and the 
cap is an adaptation of the traditional Breton 
headdress for women. 

7 Harssdorfer, George Philipp. Vollstandiges 
Vermehrtes Trincir-Buch, Paulus Fiirsten Kunst- 
handlern, Nuremberg, 1665, p. 230-231. This 
rare book, a copy of which is owned by the 
Museum, illustrates a number of napkin folds 
typical of the period. 

8 Leonardo da Vinci. II Codice Atlantico di 
Leonardo da Vinci nella Biblioteca Ambrosiana 
di Milano, Milan, 1894, vol. 4, fig. 318 R a. The 
text with the drawing speaks of "veloce," indi- 
cating a concern with speed and figures moving 
in space. Other illustrations of folded objects 
are figs. 231 Re, 240 V a, 246 R b, 272 V a, and 
273 Vb. 



9 Beman and Smith. New Plane and Solid 
Geometry, p. 287. T. Sundara Row's Geometric 
Exercises in Paper Folding, edited and revised 
by Beman and Smith, Chicago, 1901, is com- 
pletely devoted to the use of three-dimensional 
folding in geometry. 

10 Architectural Record, Sept. 1954, p. 176, 
shows a paper form illustrating an engineering 
principle that allows the apparently fragile 
paper to support a great weight superimposed. 
Typical paper fold forms realized in architec- 
tural use may be seen in Architectural Record, 
Nov. 1954, p. 223, fig. 17 and in Architectural 
Forum, April, 1954, p. 157. 

11 Moholy-Nagy, L. Vision in Motion, Chicago, 
1946, p. 81. 

12 Anesaki, Masaharu. Art, Life and Nature in 
Japan, Boston, 1933, p. 104 fol. 

13 These terms are somewhat overlapping. The 
carefully tied knot may be called 'musubi' with 
the fold and knot together termed 'mizuhiki.' 
Generally speaking, however, Japanese shops 
sell simple folded paper forms as 'noshi' and the 
strings with which to tie the prescribed knot as 
'mizuhiki.' 

14 Nagahiro Michide. Yoryu Origami Denjyu, 
circa 1719. 

15 Anesaki, op. cit. p. 53 fol. 

16 ibid. p. 113 

17 Collingwood, S. D. The Life and Letters of 
Lewis Carroll, New York, 1899, p. 285 and p. 
297- 

18 Ortega y Gasset, Eduardo, Monodidlogos de 
Don Miguel de Unamuno, New York, 1958, p. 
176 fol. Unamuno himself wrote a treatise on 
paper folding called Cocotologia o arte de hacer 
pajaritas de papel. 



CATALOGUE 



Objects are lent by the maker unless followed by a number in 
parentheses, in which case refer to the list of contributors on last page. 



Paper Folds 


Ligia Montoya; Argentina, Buenos Aires 


Giuseppe Baggi; United States, New York 


41. Group of Flowers 

42. Fly 

43. Two Moths 


i. Three-Masted Schooner 


2. Ship 


44. Three Beetles 


3. Chinese Junk 


45. Group of Birds 


4. Hawk 




5. Stork 


Robert Neale; United States, New York 


6. Giraffe 


46. Hawk 


7. Kangaroo 


47. Dinosaurus 


8. Anteater 


48. Cat 


9. Bull 


49. Dog 


10. Rhinoceros 


50. Bull and Matador 


11. Running Man 

12. Sitting Man 


Robert Harbin; The West Indies, 


13. Strutting Man 


Jamaica 


14. Llama 


38. Angelfish 


15. Donkey 


39. Crab 


16. Elephant 


40. Polar Bear 


17. Eagle 

18. Eagle 

19. Pair of Deer 


Samuel L. Randlett; United States, 


Nashville 


20. Deer 


51. Dromedary Camel 


21. Goose 


52. Dromedary Camel 


22. Bird 


53. Resting Dromedary Camel 


23. Grotesque Bird 


54. Two Butterflies 


24. Penguin 


55. Gull 


25. Scorpion 


56. Five Gulls 


26. Crab 


57. Two Mice 


27. Shrimp 


58. Fish 


28. Puzzle 


59. Tortoise 


29. Puzzle 


60. Sea Turtle 


30. Wand 


61. Pelican 


31. Cap 


62. Two Bats 


63. Watch Dog 


Martin Gardner; United States, 


64. Egret 


New York 


George Rhoads; United States, New York 


32. Bat 


65. Armadillo 


Ernst Hacker; United States, New York 


66. Honking Goose 

67. Two Beetles 


33. Owl 


68. Cardinal 


34. Snake 


69. Group of Bats 


35. Sheep 


70. Dog 


36. Mask 


71. Dog 


37. Pegasus 


72. Beetle 



73- Giraffe 

74. Three Elephants 

75. Grasshopper 

Jack Skillman; United States, Chicago 

76. Rooster 

77. Hobby Horse, in two pieces 

Miguel De Unamuno (1864-1936); Spain 

78. Table (11) 

79. Crow (u) 

80. Teapot (11) 

81. Elephant (11) 

82. Frog (11) 

Akira Yoshizawa; Japan, Tokyo 

83. Crow (6) 

84. Shark (6) 

85. Cuttlefish (6) 

86. Fur Seal (6) 

87. Giraffe (6) 

88. Camel (6) 

89. Doe (6) 

go. Sparrows (6) 

91. Ostrich (6) 

92. Dog (6) 

93. Gorilla 

94. Frog 

95. Carp 
g6. Mask 

97. Two Swans 

98. Lion 

99. Leaves 

100. Eagle 

101. Arrangement of Butterfly, 
Beetle and Leaves 

102. Snail on Leaf 

103. Two Foxes 

104. Three Butterflies 

105. Prawn (6) 

106. Dove (6) 

107. Vulture (6) 

108. Two Turtles 

109. March Hare (6) 

110. Bat (6) 

111. Squirrel (6) 

112. Three Penguins (6) 

113. Monkey (6) 

1 14. Goose (6) 

115. Macaw (6) 

1 16. Three Flying Fish (6) 

117. Badger (6) 

118. Cock, Hen and Chicks (6) 

119. Horse (6) 

120. Three Mice (6) 
is 1. Peacock 

122. Sea Horse 

123. Mantis (6) 



124. Tortoise (6) 

125. Fox 

126. Emperor and Empress in 
Ceremonial Robes 

Traditional Folds 

127. Horse, European origin; George Rhoads; 
United States, New York 

128. Two printer's caps, craft tradition; United 
States, New York (8) 

129. Bird, Japanese origin; George Rhoads 
United States, New York 

130. Frog, Japanese origin; George Rhoads 
United States, New York 

131. Pagoda, Japanese origin; George Rhoads 
United States, New York 

132. Dragonfly, reconstructed from a diagram 
in the Kanomado Book of Origami, pub- 
lished in Japan, about 1850 (the original 
now lost); Ligia Montoya; Argentina, 
Buenos Aires 

133. Crane, Japanese origin; Akira Yoshizawa; 
Japan, Tokyo (6) 

134. Presentation box, Japanese origin; Akira 
Yoshizawa; Japan, Tokyo 

135. Gift box, Japanese origin; Akira Yoshi- 
zawa; Japan, Tokyo 

136. Box, Japanese origin; Japan (ig) 

137. Wedding gift set, Japanese origin; Japan 
(13) 

Essays in Three-Dimensional Form 



Class Exercise; Ellen Eisenberg; United 

States, New York (2) 

Class Exercise; Shelagh Foreman; United 

States, New York (2) 

Class Exercise; Shelagh Foreman; United 

States, New York (2) 

Class Exercise; Joyce Hedman; United 

States, New York (2) 

Class Exercise; Susan Kamen; United 

States, New York (2) 

Class Exercise; Leanne Lipston; United 

States, New York (2) 

Class Exercise; Esme Meyers; United 

States, New York (2) 

Class Exercise; John Morris; United 

States, New York (2) 

Fourteen Icicles; John Nordquist; United 

States, Pasadena 

Class Exercise; Richard Piken; United 

States, New York (2) 

Class Exercise; Robert Pilberg; United 

States, New York (2) 

Geometric Form; George Rhoads; United 

States, New York 

Geometric Form; George Rhoads; United 

States, New York 



138. 
139' 
140. 
141. 
14s. 

143- 
144. 

145' 
146. 
147. 
148. 

'49- 
150. 



151. Class Exercise; Ray Rich; United States, 
New York (2) 

152. Class Exercise; Mary Sims; United States, 
New York (2) 

153. Octahedron, Positive and Negative Pyra- 
mids; Jack J. Skillman; United States, 
Chicago 

154. Octahedron, Negative volume; Jack J. 
Skillman; United States, Chicago 

155. Trigonal Trisoctahedron; Jack J. Skill- 
man; United States, Chicago 

156. Class Exercise; Annette Weiss; United 
States, New York (2) 

Mathematical Exercises 

157. Four problems in enveloping conies: Hy- 
perbola, Parabola, Ellipse, Tear Shaped 
Ellipse; Jack S. Berger; United States, New 
York (3) 

158. Model explaining structural principles of 
a Hyperbolic Paraboloid, string, wire, 
wood; Stephen Furman; United States, 
New York (3) 

159. Rhombicuboctahedron; Allan Sass; United 
States, New York (3) 

160. Trapezoidal Icositetrahedron; Allan Sass; 
United States, New York (3) 

161. PentakisDodecahedron; Allan Sass; United 
States, New York (3) 

162. Truncated Dodecahedron; Allan Sass; 
United States, New York (3) 

Trade and Craft Applications 

163. Two invitations for a film opening; Saul 
Bass; United States, Hollywood 

164. Collar, embroidered silk; United States, 
about 1850 (4) 

165. Skirt, black wool embroidered in colored 
wools; Burma, igth century (4) 

166. Skirt, black satin with pleats sewed in 
place; Peru, about i860 (4) 

167. Fan, brown satin, teak sticks; Spain, late 
19th century (4) 

168. Fan, painted gilt paper, bamboo sticks; 
Japan, early 20th century (4) 

169. Fan, glazed brown muslin, tortoise-shell 
shaft; United States, late 19th century (4) 

170. Baptism announcement, colored engrav- 
ing; Johann Gottfried Bock (1741-1808) 
Germany, Augsburg, 1792 (4) 

171. Baptism announcement, colored engrav- 
ing; Johann Gottfried Bock (1741-1808) 
Germany, Augsburg, 1800 (4) 

17s. Trade card, "Ozone Soap," Lithograph; 
United States, about 1885 (4) 

173. Plastic and wood desk lamp; Nori Sinoto; 
United States, New York (10) 

174. Pattern for plastic desk lamp; Nori Sin- 
oto; United States, New York 



175. Two record cases; Nori Sinoto; United 
States, New York 

176. Box for recording tape; Nori Sinoto; 
United States, New York 

177. Rectangular box; Nori Sinoto; United 
States, New York 

178. Two hat boxes; Nori Sinoto; United 
States, New York 

179. Seven ash trays of various designs; Nori 
Sinoto; United States, New York 

180. Box; Denmark, Copenhagen (12) 

Books 

181. Nagahiro Michide: Yoryu Origami 
Denjyu; Japan, about 1719 (13) 

182. Ogasawara school book of model folds 
for gifts (noshi); Japan, early 20th cen- 
tury (13) 

183. Ogasawara school book of model folds 
for gifts (noshi); Japan, early 20th cen- 
tury (13) 

184. Harssdorfer, George Philipp: Vollstdn- 
diges Vermehrtes Trincir-Buch; Paulus 
Fiirsten Kunsthandlern, Germany, Nu- 
remberg, 1665 (4) 

185. Tissandier, Gaston: Popular Scientific 
Recreations; Ward, Lock & Bowden, Ltd., 
England, London, 1882 (5) 

186. "Melange" scrap book, Ireland, 1820-1840 
(4) 

Photographs 



Pleated linen dress, Egypt, about 1250 
B.C.; Wooden statuette (7) 
Folded cloth headdress, about 1435; Sculp- 
tured Head of Isabella of Bavaria (7) 
Nun with sunshade; Brazil (7) 
Festive peasant dress; Spain, Arag6n (7) 
Paper model demonstrating structural 
strength achieved through folding (1) 
Exhibition booth at 1951 Hanover (Ger- 
many) Construction Fair (1) 
Nun in folded headdress on the Harbor 
at San Juan; Photographer: Jack Delano 

(9) 

Printers at work (8) 



Diagrams 

195. Directions for folding a printer's cap; 
United States, New York (8) 

196. Kanomado diagram for folding a dragon- 
fly; published in Japan, about 1850 
(reproduction) 

197. Diagrams for folding an elephant; George 
Rhoads; United States, New York 

198. Diagram for traditional folding of a pig; 
George Rhoads; United States, New York 



CONTRIBUTORS 

i . Architectural Record 

2. Cooper Union Art School 

3. Cooper Union Engineering School 

4. Cooper Union Museum 

5. Martin Gardner 

6. Gershon Legman 

7. New York Public Library Picture Collection 

8. The New York Times 

9. Puerto Rico Office of Information 

10. George Tanier, Inc. 

1 1 . Senorita Felisa de Unamuno 

12. Mrs. William Vorhaus 

13. Eugene Waddell 



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